Structures for extreme environments will have to satisfy very unique requirements. The extreme environments on Earth, other celestial bodies or in open Space pose new challenges to the designer with respect to:

Gravity: 0g in space, 1/6g on the Moon, 0.38g on Mars or 1g on Earth.
Radiation / Shielding: Solar & cosmic radiation as well as micrometeoroid impacts endanger the inhabitants of habitat structures away from Earth. Shielding is necessary.
Vacuum / Internal Pressurization: The habitat structure must contain pressure and be failsafe against decompression. Material issues with exposure to vacuum.
Planetary Dust: Moon dust, for example, is highly abrasive and toxic.
Temperature extremes: Issues for material, construction and insulation of the completed structure.